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Jewelry

Diamond ring

Amber pendants

Diamond temptation design

Jewellery or jewelrybracelets.

With some exceptions, such as medical alert bracelets or military dog tags, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to look appealing, but humans have been producing and wearing it for a long time – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery.[2]

Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials, but toe rings.

The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was [1]

[edit] Form and function

Kenyan man wearing tribal beads

Jewellery has been used for a number of reasons:

  • Currency, wealth display and storage,
  • Functional use (such as clasps, pins and buckles)
  • Symbolism (to show membership or status or religious affiliation)
  • Protection (in the form of amulets and magical wards),[4]
  • Artistic display

Most cultures have at some point had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures move wedding citation needed]

Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.[5]

Jewellery can also be symbolic of group membership, as in the case of the wedding ring.

Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures; these may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones, plants, animals, body parts (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as stylised versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art).[6]

Although artistic display has clearly been a function of jewellery from the very beginning, the other roles described above tended to take primacy.[Alberto Repossi.

[edit] Materials and methods

Anticlastic raised sterling bracelet.

In creating jewellery, stainless steel findings are sometimes used.

Bead embroidery design.

Other commonly used materials include citation needed]

African and indigenous North American cultures.

Advanced citation needed]

Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving and “cold-joining” (using adhesives, staples and rivets to assemble parts).[7]

[edit] Diamonds

Diamonds were first mined in [11]

The carats (621.35 g).

Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.[12]

[edit] Other gemstones

Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are:

Amber
Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old.
Amethyst
Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark.

Spanish emerald and gold pendant at Victoria and Albert Museum.

Emerald
Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC.
Jade
Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colours, as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven.
Jasper
Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in the stone’s pattern.
Quartz
Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour), and smoky quartz (which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). A number of other gemstones, such as Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions.
Ruby
Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones.
Sapphire
The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones (emerald, ruby, and sapphire).
Turquoise
Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour.

Some gemstones (like pearls, coral, and amber) are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals.

Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconia, which can be used in place of diamond.[13]

[edit] Metal finishes

An example of gold plated jewellery

For diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving “brush strokes.” Hammered finishes are typically created by using a soft, rounded hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.

Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver (a process known as flashing) or may be plated with rhodium or gold. Base metal costume jewellery may also be plated with silver, gold, or rhodium for a more attractive finish.

[edit] Impact on society

Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, for instance, only certain ranks could wear rings;[14] later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery, again based on rank. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role. For example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century and early 20th century. More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings, has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is completely rejected in others. Likewise, hip hop culture has popularised the slang term bling-bling, which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women.

Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise [17] In Christianity, the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold, in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. In Revelation 17, “the great whore” or false religious system, is depicted as being “decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand.” (Rev. 17:4)

[edit] History

The history of jewellery is a long one, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked.

[edit] Early history

The first signs of jewellery came from the people in Africa. Perforated beads suggesting ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40,000 years ago.

Outside of Africa, the pendant.

Around 7,000 years ago, the first sign of [18].

[edit] Egypt

Amulet pendant (1254 BC) made from carnelian, 14 cm wide.

An Egyptian 18th dynasty pharaonic era princess’ crown.

The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000-5,000 years ago.[19] The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. Predynastic Egypt had Jewellery in Egypt soon began to symbolise power and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods.

In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured citation needed]

Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies.[19]

[edit] Europe and the Middle East

[edit] Mesopotamia

By approximately 4,000 years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities of Mesopotamia. The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery of Ur, where hundreds of burials dating 2900–2300 BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of Puabi contained a multitude of artefacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed pins. In Assyria, men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, including amulets, ankle bracelets, heavy multi-strand necklaces, and cylinder seals.[20]

Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly-coloured stones (chiefly agate, lapis, carnelian, and jasper). Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols. They employed a wide variety of sophisticated metalworking techniques, such as cloisonné, engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.[21]

Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:

1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 34 flat speckled chalcedony bead, [and] 35 gold fluted beads, in groups of five.

1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 39 flat speckled chalcedony beads, [with] 41 fluted beads in a group that make up the hanging device.

1 necklace with rounded lapis lazuli beads including: 28 rounded lapis lazuli beads, [and] 29 fluted beads for its clasp.[22]

[edit] Greece

Gold earring from Mycenae, 16th century BC.

The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1600 BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. By 300 BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed, the designs grew in complexity and different materials were soon used.

Pendant with naked woman, made from Rhodes, around 630-620 BC.

Jewellery in clay copies were made also.

Ancient Greek jewellery from 300 BC.

They worked two styles of pieces: cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered. It was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds. The two halves were then joined together, and wax, followed by molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been practised since the late Bronze Age. The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to thickness and then soldered together. The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface. The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia, when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive. Numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia, with only one example ever found anywhere else.[23]

[edit] Rome

Roman Amethyst intaglio engraved gem, c. 212 AD; later regarded as of St. Peter.

Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the perfume.

Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the “Evil Eye” given by other people. Although women wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring. Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every finger, while others wore none. Roman men and women wore rings with an engraved gem on it that was used with wax to seal documents, a practice that continued into medieval times when kings and noblemen used the same method. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes.[19]

[edit] Middle Ages

Merovingian fibulae, Bibliothèque nationale de France.

6th century bronze eagle-shaped Visigothic garnets.

Post-Roman Europe continued to develop jewellery making skills. The garnet were perhaps the quintessential method and gemstone of the period.

The Eastern successor of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, continued many of the methods of the Romans, though religious themes came to predominate. Unlike the Romans, the Franks, and the Celts, however, Byzantium used light-weight gold leaf rather than solid gold, and more emphasis was placed on stones and gems. As in the West, Byzantine jewellery was worn by wealthier females, with male jewellery apparently restricted to signet rings. Woman’s jewellery had some peculiarities like kolts that decorated headband. Like other contemporary cultures, jewellery was commonly buried with its owner.[26]

[edit] Renaissance

The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade led to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. A fascinating example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghan lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings.[27] Notable among merchants of the period was Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France in the 1660s.

When conch shell cameos instead of stone cameos. New terms were coined to differentiate the arts: jewellers who worked in cheaper materials were called bijoutiers, while jewellers who worked with expensive materials were called joailliers, a practice which continues to this day.

[edit] Romanticism

Mourning jewellery in the form of a brooch, 19th century.

Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology and a fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art. Changing social conditions and the onset of the Industrial Revolution also led to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes led to the development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish, however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though superior artistic and technical work. One such artist was the French goldsmith Françoise Désire Froment Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often seen wearing jet jewellery after the death of Prince Albert, and it allowed the wearer to continue wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one.[28]

In the United states, this period saw the founding in 1837 of patronage.

This period also saw the first major collaboration between East and West. Collaboration in Pforzheim between German and Japanese artists led to Shakudō plaques set into Filigree frames being created by the Stoeffler firm in 1885).[29] Perhaps the grand finalé – and an appropriate transition to the following period – were the masterful creations of the Russian artist Peter Carl Fabergé, working for the Imperial Russian court, whose Fabergé eggs and jewellery pieces are still considered as the epitome of the goldsmith’s art.

[edit] Art Nouveau

In the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potential of the growing Sezession, Italian “Liberty”, etc.

Art Nouveau jewellery encompassed many distinct features including a focus on the female form and an emphasis on colour, most commonly rendered through the use of enamelling techniques including basse-taille, champleve, cloisonné, and plique-à-jour. Motifs included orchids, irises, pansies, vines, swans, peacocks, snakes, dragonflies, mythological creatures, and the female silhouette.

Enamels played a large role in technique, while sinuous organic lines are the most recognisable design feature.

The end of World War I once again changed public attitudes, and a more sober style developed.[30]

[edit] Art Deco

Growing political tensions, the after-effects of the war, and a reaction against the perceived decadence of the turn of the 20th century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Elizabeth Treskow, although development of the re-invention has continued into the 1990s. It is based on the basic shapes.

[edit] Asia

Royal earrings, India, 1st Century BC.

In Asia, the Indian subcontinent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere, with a history of over 5,000 years.[31] One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization in what is now predominately modern-day Pakistan. Early jewellery making in China started around the same period, but it became widespread with the spread of Buddhism around 2,000 years ago.

[edit] China

The Chinese used [32]

Jade coiled serpent, Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD)

`Xin’ Shape Jewellery from Ming Dynasty Tombs, (1368–1644)

In China,the most uncommon piece of jewellery was the earring, which was worn neither by men nor women.[phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs.

The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves. Most Chinese graves found by archaeologists contain decorative jewellery.[33]

[edit] Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent (encompassing India, Pakistan and other countries of South Asia) has a long jewellery history, which went through various changes through cultural influence and politics for more than 5,000-8,000 years. India has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere since Ramayana and Mahabharata times. Because India had abundant amount of jewellery resources, it prospered financially through export and exchange with other countries.While Western traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5,000 years.[31] One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization (encompassing present-day Pakistan and northwest India). By 1500 BC, the peoples of the Indus Valley were creating gold earrings and necklaces, bead necklaces, and metallic bangles. Before 2100 BC, prior to the period when metals were widely used, the largest jewellery trade in the Indus Valley region was the bead trade. Beads in the Indus Valley were made using simple techniques. First, a bead maker would need a rough stone, which would be bought from an eastern stone trader. The stone would then be placed into a hot oven where it would be heated until it turned deep red, a colour highly prized by people of the Indus Valley. The red stone would then be chipped to the right size and a hole bored through it with primitive drills. The beads were then polished. Some beads were also painted with designs. This art form was often passed down through the family. Children of bead makers often learned how to work beads from a young age. Persian style also played a big role in India’s jewellery. Each stone had its own characteristics related to Hinduism.

Jewellery in the Indus Valley was worn predominantly by females, who wore numerous clay or shell bracelets on their wrists. They were often shaped like doughnuts and painted black. Over time, clay bangles were discarded for more durable ones. In present-day India, bangles are made out of metal or glass. Other pieces that women frequently wore were thin bands of gold that would be worn on the forehead, earrings, primitive brooches, chokers, and gold rings. Although women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were often crafted to be placed in men and women’s hair. The beads were about one millimetre long.

A female skeleton (presently on display at the National Museum, New Delhi, India) wears a carlinean bangle (bracelet) on her left hand.

According to Hindu belief, gold and silver are considered as sacred metals. Gold is symbolic of the warm sun, while silver suggests the cool moon. Both are the quintessential metals of Indian jewellery. Pure gold does not oxidise or corrode with time, which is why Hindu tradition associates gold with immortality. Gold imagery occurs frequently in ancient Indian literature. In the Vedic Hindu belief of cosmological creation, the source of physical and spiritual human life originated in and evolved from a golden womb (hiranyagarbha) or egg (hiranyanda), a metaphor of the sun, whose light rises from the primordial waters.[34]

The Mughal reign was the most significant period of time in relation to jewellery. A lot of jewellers prospered from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. Jewellery had great status with India’s royalty; it was so powerful that they established laws, limiting wearing of jewellery to royalty. Only royalty and a few others to whom they granted permission could wear gold ornaments on their feet. This would normally be considered breaking the appreciation of the sacred metals. Even though the majority of the Indian population wore jewellery, Maharajas and people related to royalty had a deeper connection with jewellery. The Maharaja‘s role was so important that the Hindu philosophers identified him as central to the smooth working of the world. He was considered as a divine being, a deity in human form, whose duty was to uphold and protect dharma, the moral order of the universe.[35]

A Navaratna ring.

Maharaja and other royal family members value gem as Hindu God. They exchanged gems with people to whom they were very close, especially the royal family members and other intimate allies. “Only the emperor himself, his intimate relations, and select members of his entourage were permitted to wear royal turban ornament. As the empire matured, differing styles of ornament acquired the generic name of sarpech, from sar or sir, meaning head, and pech, meaning fastener.”

India was the first country to mine diamonds, with some mines dating back to 296 BC. India traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities. Historically, diamonds have been given to retain or regain a lover’s or ruler’s lost favour, as symbols of tribute, or as an expression of fidelity in exchange for concessions and protection. Mughal emperors used the diamonds as a means of assuring their immortality by having their names and wordly titles inscribed upon them. Moreover, it has played and continues to play a pivotal role in Indian social, political, economic, and religious event, as it often has done elsewhere. In Indian history, diamonds have been used to acquire military equipment, finance wars, foment revolutions, and tempt defections. They have contributed to the abdication or the decapitation of potentates. They have been used to murder a representative of the dominating power by lacing his food with crushed diamond. Indian diamonds have been used as security to finance large loans needed to buttress politically or economically tottering regimes. Victorious military heroes have been honoured by rewards of diamonds and also have been used as ransom payment for release from imprisonment or abduction.[36] Today, many of the jewellery designs and traditions are used, and jewellery is commonplace in Indian ceremonies and weddings.[33]

[edit] North and South America

Jewellery played a major role in the fate of the Mayans, and numerous Andean cultures, such as the Mochica of Peru, created beautiful pieces of jewellery.

With the Mochica culture, goldwork flourished. The pieces are no longer simple metalwork, but are now masterful examples of jewellery making. Pieces are sophisticated in their design, and feature inlays of turquoise, mother of pearl, spondylus shell, and amethyst. The nose and ear ornaments, chest plates, small containers and whistles are considered masterpieces of ancient Peruvian culture.[37]

Moche ear ornaments. 1-800 AD. Larco Museum Collection, Lima-Peru

Among the [28]

Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making were the Maya. At the peak of their civilization, the Maya were making jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze, and copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish headdresses and jewellery. The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to metal, so they made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone. Merchants and nobility were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya region, much the same as with the Aztecs.[33]

In North America, Native Americans used shells, wood, turquoise, and soapstone, almost unavailable in South and Central America. The turquoise was used in necklaces and to be placed in earrings. Native Americans with access to oyster shells, often located in only one location in America, traded the shells with other tribes, showing the great importance of the body adornment trade in Northern America.[39]

[edit] Native American

Bai-De-Schluch-A-Ichin or Be-Ich-Schluck-Ich-In-Et-Tzuzzigi (Slender Silversmith) “Metal Beater,” Navajo silversmith, photo by George Ben Wittick, 1883

Native American jewellery is the personal adornment, often in the forms of necklaces, earrings, bracelets, rings, pins, brooches, labrets, and more, made by the Indigenous peoples of the United States. Native American jewellery reflects the cultural diversity and history of its makers. Native American tribes continue to develop distinct aesthetics rooted in their personal artistic visions and cultural traditions. Artists create jewellery for adornment, ceremonies, and trade. Lois Sherr Dubin writes, “[i]n the absence of written languages, adornment became an important element of Indian [Native American] communication, conveying many levels of information.” Later, jewellery and personal adornment “…signaled resistance to assimilation. It remains a major statement of tribal and individual identity.”[40]

Metalsmiths, beaders, carvers, and lapidaries combine a variety of metals, hardwoods, precious and semi-precious gemstones, quillwork, teeth, bones, hide, vegetal fibres, and other materials to create jewellery. Contemporary Native American jewellery ranges from hand-quarried and processed stones and shells to computer-fabricated steel and titanium jewellery.

[edit] Pacific

Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood, and other natural materials, and thus has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins, and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces.

Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility or power. Elaborate headdresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, wear certain headdresses once they have killed an enemy. Tribesman may wear boar bones through their noses.

Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside cultures. Some areas of Borneo and Papua New Guinea are yet to be explored by Western nations. However, the island nations that were flooded with Western missionaries have had drastic changes made to their jewellery designs. Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as a sign of the wearer’s devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the mass conversion to Christianity.[41]

A modern bracelet

Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Opals had already been mined in Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 19th century, the Australian opal market became predominant. Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the country, making it one the most profitable stones in the Pacific.[42]

The New Zealand Māori traditionally had a strong culture of personal adornment,[43] most famously the hei-tiki. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone, nephrite, or bowenite.

Nowadays a wide range of such traditionally-inspired items such as bone carved pendants based on traditional fishhooks greenstone jewellery are popular with young New Zealanders of all backgrounds – for whom they relate to a generalized sense of New Zealand identity. These trends have contributed towards a worldwide interest in traditional Māori culture and arts.

Other than jewellery created through Māori influence, modern jewellery in New Zealand is multicultural and varied.[41]

[edit] Modern

Early Twenty-first Century American woman wearing a decorative necklace and earrings.

Contemporary jewellery design

Diamond International Awards1994 from Brazil

The modern jewellery movement began in the late 1940s at the end of World War II with a renewed interest in artistic and leisurely pursuits. The movement is most noted with works by diamond simulant), has placed jewellery within the economic grasp of a much larger segment of the population.

The grills, a type of jewellery worn over the teeth.

The late 20th century saw the blending of European design with oriental techniques such as Mokume-gane. The following are innovations in the decades straddling the year 2000: “Mokume-gane, hydraulic die forming, anti-clastic raising, fold-forming, reactive metal anodising, shell forms, PMC, photoetching, and [use of] CAD/CAM.”[44]

Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 United States periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility, and a low initial cost of entry continues to expand production of hand-made adornments. Some fine examples of artisan jewellery can be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.[45] The increase in numbers of students choosing to study jewellery design and production in Australia has grown in the past 20 years, and Australia now has a thriving contemporary jewellery community. Many of these jewellers have embraced modern materials and techniques, as well as incorporating traditional workmanship.

[edit] Body modification

A Padaung girl in Northern Thailand.

Jewellery used in body modification is usually plain. The use of simple silver studs, rings, and earrings predominates. Common jewellery pieces such as earrings are a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear.

Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as five years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves too. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach 10-15 inches long. The practice has obvious health impacts, however, and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity.[46] Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes or enlarge ear piercings. In the Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and First Nations peoples of the northwest coast.[47] Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples.

In the late 20th century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects, thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred.

In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier, with, in some cases, hooks or even objects as large as bike bars being placed into the recipient’s skin. Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies, this practice has seeped into western culture. Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. This practice is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whilst being suspended by hooks.[46]

[edit] Jewellery market

According to a recent KPMG study[48] the largest jewellery market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India, China, and the Middle East each with 8–9%, and Italy with 5%. The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe’s and Japan’s marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries, Italy and the UK.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ American and British spelling differences
  2. ^ Study reveals ‘oldest jewellery’, BBC News, June 22, 2006.
  3. ^ jewel. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved on August 7, 2007, from the Dictionary.com website.
  4. ^ Kunz, PhD, DSc, George Frederick (1917). Magic of Jewels and Charms. John Lippincott Co.. URL: Magic Of jewels: Chapter VII Amulets George Frederick Kunz was gemmologist for Tiffany’s built the collections of banker J.P. Morgan and the American Natural History Museum in NY City. This chapter deals entirely with using jewels and gemstones in jewellery for talismanic purposes in Western Cultures. The next chapter deals with other, indigenous cultures.
  5. ^ c Holland, J. 1999. The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. Kingfisher books.
  6. ^ Morris, Desmond. Body Guards: Protective Amulets and Charms. Element, 1999, ISBN 1-86204-572-0.
  7. ^ McCreight, Tim. Jewelry: Fundamentals of Metalsmithing. Design Books International, 1997 ISBN 1-880140-29-2
  8. ^ http://lgdl.gia.edu/pdfs/janse-table1.pdf
  9. ^ Pliny. Natural History XXXVI, 15
  10. ^ Microsoft Word – WMP 2001–2005 title.doc
  11. ^ Natural Diamond: World Production, By Country And Type
  12. ^ “Diamonds Are a Girl’s Worst Friend: The trouble with engagement rings.” by Meghan O’Rourke at Slate.com on June 11, 2007
  13. ^ Nassau, K. (1980).Gems made by man. ISBN 0-8019-6773-2
  14. ^ Pliny the Elder. The Natural History. ed. John Bostock, Henry Thomas Riley, Book XXXIII The Natural History of Metals Online at the Perseus Project Chapter 4. Accessed July 2006
  15. ^ Howard, Vicky. “A real Man’s Ring: Gender and the Invention of Tradition.” Journal of Social History, Summer 2003, pp 837–856.
  16. ^ Yusuf al-Qaradawi. The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam (online)
  17. ^ Greenbaum, Toni. “SILVER SPEAKS: TRADITIONAL JEWELRY FROM THE MIDDLE EAST”. Metalsmith, Winter2004, Vol. 24, Issue 1, p.56. Greenbaum provides the explanation for the lack of historical examples; the majority of Islamic jewellery was in the form of bridal dowries, and traditionally was not handed down from generation to generation; instead, on a woman’s death it was sold at the souk and recycled or sold to passers-by. Islamic jewellery from before the 19th century is thus exceedingly rare.
  18. ^ http://austrianindependent.com/news/General_News/2012-10-03/12320/Cavewoman_jeweller_rewrites_gender_history
  19. ^ ISBN 0-86438-007-0
  20. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 155–157.
  21. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 295–297.
  22. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life, 297.
  23. ^ Treister, Mikhail YU. “Polychrome Necklaces from the Late Hellenistic Period.” Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 2004, Vol. 10 Issue 3/4, p199–257, 59p.
  24. ^ Duby Georges and Philippe Ariès, eds. A History of Private Life Vol 1 – From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Harvard, 1987. p 506
  25. ^ Duby, throughout.
  26. ^ Sherrard, P. 1972. Great Ages of Man: Byzantium. Time-Life International.
  27. ^ Scarisbrick, Diana. Rings: Symbols of Wealth, Power, and Affection. New York: Abrams, 1993. ISBN 0-8109-3775-1 p77.
  28. ^ b Farndon, J. 2001. 1,000 Facts on Modern History. Miles Kelly Publishing.
  29. ^ Ilse-Neuman, Ursula. Book review “Schmuck/Jewellery 1840–1940: Highlights from the Schmuckmuseum Pforzheim.’’ ‘’Metalsmith’’. Fall2006, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p12–13, 2p
  30. ^ Constantino, Maria. Art Nouveau. Knickerbocker Press; 1999 ISBN 1-57715-074-0 as well as Ilse-Neuman 2006.
  31. ^ ISBN 0-8109-3886-3. p15.
  32. ^ Lu, Peter J., “Early Precision Compound Machine from Ancient China.” Science, 6/11/2004, Vol. 304, Issue 5677
  33. ^ c Reader’s Digest Association. 1983. Vanished Civilisations. Reader’s Digest.
  34. 0-8109-3886-3.
  35. ^ Prior, Katherine (2000). Maharajas Jewels. New York: Harry N. Adams. pp. 12.
  36. ^ Prior, Katherine (2000). Traditional Jewelry of India. New York: Vendome. pp. 312.
  37. 978-9972-9341-2-4.
  38. ^ The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. Miller,Mary 1993
  39. ^ Josephy Jr, A.M. 1994. 500 Nations: The Illustrated History of North American Indians. Alfred A. Knopf. Inc.
  40. ^ Dubin, 17
  41. ^ ISBN 1-86953-535-9.
  42. ^ Dorling Kindersley Ltd. 1989. Facts and Fallacies: Stories of the Strange and Unusual. Reader’s Digest. 11-13.
  43. ^ “Maori made and wore items of jewllery…”, Te Papa
  44. ^ McCrieght, Tim. “What’s New?” Metalsmith Spring 2006, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p42–45, 4p
  45. ^ Nineteenth-Century American Jewelry | Thematic Essay | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  46. ^ b Packard, M. 2002. Ripley’s Believe it or not: Special Edition. Scholastic Inc. 22.
  47. ^ Moss, Madonna L. “George Catlin among the Nayas: Understanding the practice of labret wearing on the Northwest Coast.” Ethnohistory Winter99, Vol. 46 Issue 1, p31, 35p.
  48. ^ KPMG India (2007). “Global Jewelry Consumption”. Gems and Gemology (GIA) XLIII (Summer 2007): 180.

[edit] Further reading

  • Borel, F. 1994. The Splendor of Ethnic Jewelry: from the Colette and Jean-Pierre Ghysels Collection. New York: H.N. Abrams (ISBN 0-8109-2993-7).
  • Evans, J. 1989. A History of Jewellery 1100–1870 (ISBN 0-486-26122-0).
  • Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea 1998. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (ISBN 0-313-29497-6).
  • Tait, H. 1986. Seven Thousand Years of Jewellery. London: British Museum Publications (ISBN 0-7141-2034-0).



This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Jewelry, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

 

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